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BALD Engineering News Blog

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Probably The Best ALD news blog. Covering new and old developments in Atomic Layer Deposition and Technology. From BALD Engineering:

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Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Posted on 2014-02-22 13:12:17

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Using TiN ALD to create high strength low weight Nano Meta Materials

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Posted on 2014-02-15 22:10:58

Fabrication and deformation of three-dimensional hollow ceramic nanostructures
Jang, Lucas R. Meza, Frank Greer, Julia R. Greer
Nature Materials, 12 (2013) 893–898, DOI:doi:10.1038/nmat3738

Left: Skeletal natural biological materials versus TiN nanolattices. Right: Compression experiments on a single unit cell.

In the analysis of complex, hierarchical structural meta-materials, it
is critical to understand the mechanical behavior at each level of hierarchy in
order to understand the bulk material response. We report the fabrication and
mechanical deformation of hierarchical hollow tube lattice structures with
features ranging from 10 nm to 100 μm,
hereby referred to as nanolattices. Titanium nitride (TiN) nanolattices were
fabricated using a combination of two-photon lithography, direct laser writing,
and atomic layer deposition. The structure was composed of a series of
tessellated regular octahedra attached at their vertices. In situ uniaxial
compression experiments performed in combination with finite element analysis
on individual unit cells revealed that the TiN was able to withstand tensile
stresses of 1.75 GPa under monotonic loading and of up to 1.7 GPa under cyclic
loading without failure. During the compression of the unit cell, the beams
bifurcated via lateral-torsional buckling, which gave rise to a hyperelastic
behavior in the load–displacement
data. During the compression of the full nanolattice, the structure collapsed
catastrophically at a high strength and modulus that agreed well with classical
cellular solid scaling laws given the low relative density of 1.36 %. We
discuss the compressive behavior and mechanical analysis of the unit cell of
these hollow TiN nanolattices in the context of finite element analysis in
combination with classical buckling laws, and the behavior of the full
structure in the context of classical scaling laws of cellular solids coupled
with enhanced nanoscale material properties.

Screendump from the video below, showing the fabrication method of the 3D architected nano meta materials described in the Nature publication above.//

Video from Solve for X – Julia Greer – 3D Architechted Nano Metamaterials at World Economic Forum.

The Julia Greer Group at Caltech:

Idea and inspiration for this post taken from the Next Big Future Blog.

KIT demonstrates lightweight ALD coated material that mimics the structure of bone

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Posted on 2014-02-05 06:30:56

“High-strength cellular ceramic composites with 3D microarchitecture” Bauer et al., Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany LINK (10.1073/pnas.1315147111, including supporting free avaialble material, videos and pictures)

Uniaxial compression test of a polymeric truss structure (right). Failure due to local buckling of diagonal struts under compressive load is followed by large plastic deformations and fracture. Before the collapse, bending of single struts due to processing-related predeformation (shrinking effects) also is observed. Uniaxial compression test of a polymeric truss structure (left) coated with 10 nm of [ALD] Al2O3. Local buckling of individual vertical compression bars leads to the immediate collapse of the whole structure. Only a little plastic deformation can be observed.


To enhance the strength-to-weight ratio of a material, one may try to either improve the strength or lower the density, or both. The lightest solid materials have a density in the range of 1,000 kg/m3; only cellular materials, such as technical foams, can reach considerably lower values. However, compared with corresponding bulk materials, their specific strength generally is significantly lower. Cellular topologies may be divided into bending- and stretching-dominated ones. Technical foams are structured randomly and behave in a bending-dominated way, which is less weight efficient, with respect to strength, than stretching-dominated behavior, such as in regular braced frameworks. Cancellous bone and other natural cellular solids have an optimized architecture. Their basic material is structured hierarchically and consists of nanometer-size elements, providing a benefit from size effects in the material strength. Designing cellular materials with a specific microarchitecture would allow one to exploit the structural advantages of stretching-dominated constructions as well as size-dependent strengthening effects. In this paper, we demonstrate that such materials may be fabricated. Applying 3D laser lithography, we produced and characterized micro-truss and -shell structures made from alumina–polymer composite. Size-dependent strengthening of alumina shells has been observed, particularly when applied with a characteristic thickness below 100 nm. The presented artificial cellular materials reach compressive strengths up to 280 MPa with densities well below 1,000 kg/m3.


There´s hope for a Good Hair Day for a BALD Engineer!

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Posted on 2014-02-03 21:55:16

Good hair day: New technique grows tiny ‘hairy’ materials at the microscale

“(Nanowerk News) Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory attacked a tangled problem by developing a new technique to grow tiny “hairy” materials that assemble themselves at the microscale”

Actually there is more than hope, there is a also a hair vax to go with the micro hair – and yes it is made by ALD!

“In one experiment the researchers used a process called atomic layer deposition that deposits a molecule-thick layer of material over the entire hairy structure, like a fresh blanket of snow, to add a layer of semiconductor material. Semiconductors are essential ingredients in many technologies, such as solar cells and electronics”

Argonne materials scientists announced a new technique to grow these little forests at the microscale (the scale shows 100 micrometers, which is about the diameter of a single human hair). (Image by Alexey Snezhko and Igor Aronson)

Read more: Good hair day: New technique grows tiny ‘hairy’ materials at the microscale

For all Moomin fans the resembelence with the electrified Hatifnats is stunning 🙂

Picosun Develops ALD for Graphene-Based Displays and Electronics

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Posted on 2014-01-22 07:08:35

According to a press realise today from Picosun (Kyrkslätt, Finland) Picosun is taking part in a European research project to develop ALD for graphene-based displays and electronics. The development work for ALD-processing of graphene is a part of the EU 7th Framework Program project QUANTIHEAT (“QUANTItative scanning probe microscopy techniques for HEAT transfer management in nanomaterials and nanodevices”). New ALD equipment and process development is an integral part of the project.

Read more here

QUANTIHEAT is coordinated by CNRS (France) and project partners are NPL, Kelvin NanoTech, Univ. Lancaster and Univ. Glasgow (UK), IBM and EPFL (Switzerland), Thales TRT, LNE, ESPCI, FEMTO-ST and Univ. Reims (France), VTT and Picosun (Finland), CMI (Czech Republic), ICN (Spain), > MRT (Germany), Conpart (Norway), NT-MDT (Netherlands)

Forecast the Global ALD market

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Posted on 2014-01-11 22:28:11

Good news for everybody involved in ALD – the market is booming, according to Analyst the Global Atomic Layer Deposition market is to grow at a CAGR of 36.10 percent over the period 2013-2018. “One of the key factors contributing to this market growth is the growing demand for miniaturized components. The Global Atomic Layer Deposition market has also been witnessing the development of new atomic layer deposition materials. However, the slow deposition rate of atomic layer deposition could pose a challenge to the growth of this market.”

“The Global Atomic Layer Deposition Market 2014-2018, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the Americas, the EMEA region, and the APAC region; it also covers the Global Atomic Layer Deposition market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market.”

Complete report is available here LINK

On other sources ( on you can read the following:

“Development of new ALD materials is one of the major trends in the Global ALD market. The development of new ALD materials is expected to occur in the near future as several ALD material manufacturers are investing a huge amount to develop new ALD materials across the globe. In the last few years, the market has witnessed the introduction of some new materials such as Porous SiOC, AlO, Hf(Si)O, ZrO, LaO, and SiC by the vendors. The development of several new ALD materials is required for the in-depth understanding of growth of thin deposition layers and nanostructures to both inorganic and organic surfaces.

Analysts forecast the Global Atomic Layer Deposition market to grow at a CAGR of 36.10 percent over the period 2013-2018. According to the report, growing demand for miniaturized components is one of the major drivers of the Global ALD market. With the rapid development of nanotechnology and other advanced technologies, several manufacturing companies are in the process of manufacturing nano-components for increased compatibility and greater efficiency. Therefore, manufacturing companies across industries prefer the ALD technique to manufacture several smaller components.

Further, the report states that one of the major challenges is the need for high levels of investment. ALD equipment and materials are priced at a premium, hindering their adoption among SMEs.

Global Atomic Layer Deposition Market 2014-2018, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the Americas, the EMEA region, and the APAC region; it also covers the Global Atomic Layer Deposition market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market.

The report recognizes the following companies as the key players in the Global Atomic Layer Deposition Market: Adeka Corp., Applied Materials Inc., and ASM International N.V.

Other vendors mentioned in the report are Air Liquide S.A., Air Products and Chemicals Inc., AIXTRON SE, Arradiance Inc., ATMI Inc., Beneq Oy, Centrotherm Photovoltaics AG, Encapsulix SAS, Hitachi Kokusai Electric Inc., Kurt J. Lesker Co., Levitech BV, NCD Co. Ltd., Nova-Kem LLC., Oxford Instruments plc, Picosun Oy, Praxair Technology Inc., SENTECH Instruments GmbH, SoLayTec, Strem Chemicals Inc., SVT Associates Inc., Tokyo Electron Ltd., Tosoh Corp., Ultratech Inc., and Veeco Instruments Inc.”

“Table of Contents

01. Executive Summary
02. List of Abbreviations
03. Scope of the Report
03.1 Market Overview
03.2 Product Offerings
04. Market Research Methodology
04.1 Market Research Process
04.2 Research Methodology
05. Introduction
06. Market Landscape
06.1 Market Overview
06.2 Market Size and Forecast
06.3 Five Forces Analysis
07. Market Segmentation by Product
07.1 Equipment Segment
07.1.1 Market Size and Forecast
07.2 Materials Segment
07.2.1 Market Size and Forecast
08. Market Segmentation by End-users
09. Market Segmentation by Application
10. Geographical Segmentation
10.1 Americas
10.1.1 Market Size and Forecast
10.2 EMEA Region
10.2.1 Market Size and Forecast
10.3 APAC Region
10.3.1 Market Size and Forecast
11. Buying Criteria
12. Market Growth Drivers
13. Drivers and their Impact
14. Market Challenges
15. Impact of Drivers and Challenges
16. Market Trends
17. Trends and their Impact
18. Vendor Landscape
18.1 Competitive Scenario
18.1.1 Key News
18.1.2 Mergers and Acquisitions.
18.2 Major Vendor Analysis
18.3 Other Prominent Vendors
18.3.1 ALD Equipment Vendors
18.3.2 ALD Precursor Vendors
19. Key Vendor Analysis
19.1 Adeka Corp.
19.1.1 Business Overview
19.1.2 Business Segments
19.1.3 Key Information
19.1.4 SWOT Analysis
19.2 Applied Materials Inc.
19.2.1 Business Overview
19.2.2 Business Segments
19.2.3 Key Information
19.2.4 SWOT Analysis
19.3 ASM International N.V.
Business Overview
Key Information
SWOT Analysis
20. Other Reports in this Series

List of Exhibits:
Exhibit 1: Market Research Methodology
Exhibit 2: Global ALD Market 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 3: Global ALD Market by Product Segmentation 2013-2018
Exhibit 4: Global ALD Market by Equipment Market 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 5: Global ALD Market by Materials Market 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 6: Global ALD Market by End-user Segmentation 2013
Exhibit 7: Global ALD market by Geographical Segmentation 2013-2018
Exhibit 8: ALD market in the Americas 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 9: ALD market in the EMEA Region 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 10: ALD market in the AAPC Region 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 11: Business Segments of Adeka Corp.
Exhibit 12: Business Segments of Applied Materials Inc.”